Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Pictorial Media

For information about pictorial media, please read the following information.

1. Flat Pictures (Still Pictures)

Flat pictures are representations of objects or things on a flat surface. They are the cheapest and the most readily available of all learning materials. Many of them are free. Teachers and students can gather pictures from magazines, newspapers, advertisements, pamphlet, posters, circulars and other things. But like all other learning , materials, their values vary and their selection and use should be given careful considerations.

Guides to Teaching with Pictures

1. Pictures must be clearly seen by everyone.

2. Students/pupils must be given a chance to point out what they think are the important aspect of the picture.

3. The teacher must supplement pupils’ comments to make sure that nothing has been omitted.

4. Teacher and pupils should discuss together what they find in the picture.

5. The picture used in class should lead to the accumulation of related pictures in the textbook.

6. If the picture used in class stirs the pupils to attempt at illustrating their own, it is good evidence that a sound use has been made of them.

7. Pictures ought to supply incentives for the use of auxiliary aids, like motion pictures, filmstrips and others.

8. Picture ought to promote supplementary reading.

Reading Pictures

We read pictures in the same way that we read a page of words. We derive the message from the medium by attaching meaning to it.
A picture can be read in four levels as follows:

1. Enumerate level – This level merely calls for the giving of what one sees in the picture e.g. flower, ball, dog, etc.

2. Descriptive level – Giving a sentence on what is seen or how one sees in the picture looks like: e.g. I see a big yellow flower. The ball is red.

3. Interpretative level – Giving more meaningful sentences which are of the inference type. e.g. The yellow flower is the favorite of the girl. Father gives the red ball on the boy’s birthday.

4. Integrative level – This is relating what one sees in the picture to life. Mother bought plastic sunflower from the superstore. It decorates our living room. Or I play ball with my friends on Sundays.

Reading pictures can be most rewarding if the students/pupils are given
guides as to what to see and how to see things in the picture. They must be guided to interpret and to draw inferences about what they see. Pictures must not be merely displayed; they should be read and talked about. That is why it is necessary that the teacher should choose those which are related and relevant to the children’s interest, experiences and maturity. This is to encourage thoughtful seeing and discourse.


2. Photographs

Photographs are also still pictures, which can be mounted or unmounted,
photographic reproductions taken from a magazine, newspaper or books. They appear in black and white or in full color. They can be filed by subjects or displayed in the bulletin board. In the choice of photographs, teachers should choose those that suggest motion or the candid shots, as they are more interesting and life-like. Shotgun pictures do not pose so much challenge and interest; hence discussion about them is limited.

3. Illustration

Illustrations are non-photographic reconstruction or representation of reality, etched or drawn by an illustrator, the teacher or the students/learners themselves. Illustrations show the direction at which movement must take its course or instruction on how to go about assembling a toll in science or a material or equipment. This can be used for specific situations. Illustrations can be in black and white or in full color. They can be prepared ahead of time or the teacher can draw them on the chalkboard while the class is going on. Like the photographs they can be used by individual students/pupil or for a group of learners.

Purposes for which flat picture, photographs and illustrations can be used for teaching

1. To concertize words and symbols.
When teachers talks about a haunted house pupils will not be able to imagine what kind of house is it, how does it looks like, but if a picture is being shown, the learners will have a specific visualization of the kind of haunted house the teacher is talking about. Pupils will then have uniform information about the topics discussed.

2. To lend meaning to what one reads.
In a Science class students read about single-celled organisms like the amoeba or the paramecium. An enlarge picture of both when seen by the pupils will enrich what they read. Like wise if reading about atoms and molecules. Seeing an illustration about them will enrich their understanding of what they are.

3. To introduce or motivate
In a Literature class, where students are required to read the Ilocano epic, Biag ni Lam –ang, pictures of some episodes from the epic may arouse curiosity and interest to read it. The pictorial background can serve to orient the class to the kind of literary piece they are going to read.

4. To correct misconceptions
Pictures and photographs can make meanings more vivid and clearer, because they can capture scenes, emotions and details which words are not able to describe. Concepts are non-pictorial, but they can help in developing and presenting them. Liberty is a concept, which is non-pictorial, but pictures showing the effects and the signs of liberty can help one to better understand it.

5. To summarize a unit
To give a fuller grasp of the unit, pictures, photographs and illustrations should supplement and complement what pupils read in references and what they heard from the lectures of teachers. Pictures should become an integral part of the learning.

6. To arouse emotions.
Pictures arouse emotions; hence they compel one’s attention. A violent picture may stimulate one to dislike the act; a beautiful landscape may evoke appreciation while a colorful dish arranged with garnishing may stimulate appetite. This arousal focuses one’s attention and sustains his drives about it. This condition facilities teaching and learning.

4. Flashcards

Flashcards are valuable materials for drill activities particularly in the teaching of Mathematics, English, and Filipino. Drills are very important means of fixing the skills and automatizing the responses of pupils/students. Flashcards serve the purpose when used very well. Flashcards come in the for of word cards, phrase cards, sentence cards, mathematical combination cards and picture cards.

The following are considerations in using flashcards.

1. The flashcards must be bold and big enough to be seen by everybody.

2. Flash the cards in a fast or snappy manner to develop fast thinking or response. This will enable the pupils to automatize response.

3. Flash the cards from back to front. Write the answer at the back of each flashcard so that as you flash you can see the answer and thus you will be able to check if the response of the pupils is correct or not.

4. Hold the flashcards firmly at your chest level. Take care not to hide the words

Reference:

Teaching Educational Technology by: Candelaria D. Garo

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