Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Technology in the Classroom

There are various types of technologies currently used in traditional classrooms. Among these are:

* Computer in the classroom: Having a computer in the classroom is an asset to any teacher. With a computer in the classroom, teachers are able to demonstrate a new lesson, present new material, illustrate how to use new programs, and show new websites.[21]

* Class website: An easy way to display your student's work is to create a web page designed for your class. Once a web page is designed, teachers can post homework assignments, student work, famous quotes, trivia games, and so much more. In today's society, children know how to use the computer and navigate their way through a website, so why not give them one where they can be a published author. Just be careful as most districts maintain strong policies to manage official websites for a school or classroom. Also, most school districts provide teacher webpages that can easily be viewed through the school district's website.

* Class blogs and wikis: There are a variety of Web 2.0 tools that are currently being implemented in the classroom. Blogs allow for students to maintain a running dialogue, such as a journal,thoughts, ideas, and assignments that also provide for student comment and reflection. Wikis are more group focused to allow multiple members of the group to edit a single document and create a truly collaborative and carefully edited finished product.

* Wireless classroom microphones: Noisy classrooms are a daily occurrence, and with the help of microphones, students are able to hear their teachers more clearly. Children learn better when they hear the teacher clearly. The benefit for teachers is that they no longer lose their voices at the end of the day.

* Mobile devices: Mobile devices such as clickers or smartphone can be used to enhance the experience in the classroom by providing the possibility for professors to get feedback.[22] See also MLearning.

* Interactive Whiteboards: An interactive whiteboard that provides touch control of computer applications. These enhance the experience in the classroom by showing anything that can be on a computer screen. This not only aids in visual learning, but it is interactive so the students can draw, write, or manipulate images on the interactive whiteboard.

* Online media: Streamed video websites can be utilized to enhance a classroom lesson (e.g. United Streaming, Teacher Tube, etc.)

* Digital Games: The field of educational games and serious games has been growing significantly over the last few years. The digital games are being provided as tools for the classroom and have a lot of positive feedback including higher motivation for students.[23]

There are many other tools being utilized depending on the local school board and funds available. These may include: digital cameras, video cameras, interactive whiteboard tools, document cameras, or LCD projectors.

* Podcasts: Podcasting is a relatively new invention that allows anybody to publish files to the Internet where individuals can subscribe and receive new files from people by a subscription. The primary benefit of podcasting for educators is quite simple. It enables teachers to reach students through a medium that is both "cool" and a part of their daily lives. For a technology that only requires a computer, microphone and internet connection, podcasting has the capacity of advancing a student’s education beyond the classroom. When students listen to the podcasts of other students as well as their own, they can quickly demonstrate their capacities to identify and define "quality." This can be a great tool for learning and developing literacy inside and outside the classroom. Podcasting can help sharpen students’ vocabulary, writing, editing, public speaking, and presentation skills. Students will also learn skills that will be valuable in the working world, such as communication, time management, and problem-solving.

Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_technology
Date of download: September 21, 2011

Friday, September 16, 2011

Unistencil Project

One method used for letter cutting is through the use of Unistencil.

Here are some of the outputs of Educ. 22 Class, in the use of the Unistencil.


Thursday, September 8, 2011


Visual symbols are representations of direct reality, which comes in the form of signs and symbols. The following is a detailed discussion on the different kinds of visual symbols, which are drawings, sketches, cartoons, comics or strip drawing, diagrams, charts and graphs, maps, and posters.

Rules of Thumbs in Using Visuals

1. Visuals must be directly relevant to the audio content.

2. Redundancy between visuals and audio must be avoided. If words are displayed, viewers must be given time to read it.

3. Visual displays should be big enough to be seen by the farthest pupil.

4. Visual displays must be attractive.

5. Visual displays must be aesthetically presented to maintain good taste.

Kinds of Visual Symbols

1. Cartoons

Cartoons tell stories metaphorically through pictures, which need no captions. Symbolism conveys messages, less words more symbolism the better. The cartoon presents a certain issue or concern which could be either for or against it.

It is a pictorial representation or caricature of a person, idea, situation or issue that is designed to influence public opinion. Therefore cartoons must be presented in a challenging manner. For better understanding they should be drawn around a single idea.

Suggestion for the use of cartoons

a. Appropriateness to experience level. The age and the experience or maturity of the target learners must be taken into consideration.

b. Simplicity – contains only the essential features. The cartoon must not contain so many details.

c. Brevity of captions if ever but they may not be given any. Short and direct captions are used when necessary only.

d. Use of clear symbols. Use symbols that are conventional, like; the dove to mean death; the turtle to mean slow or sluggishness and others.

e. Adequateness of size. The cartoon should be big enough to be seen and appreciated.

Cartoons could be used for motivation, for follow-up activity and for evaluation purposes.

2. Posters

A poster is combination of bold designs and color primarily intended to catch attention on a significant fact, idea or message. Simply stated, a poster is a picture with appropriate caption.

Characteristics of a good poster

1. It must be bold and simple but dramatizes features.

2. It must be appropriate to the grade level and to the subject and purpose and purposes.

3. It must have only limited text, few words are generally used and key words are made to standout by means of type size or position.

4. It must be attractive, pleasing to the eyes.

5. Design and color must be given consideration.

Composition, color and technique are principal elements in effective poster preparation. It requires a center of interest. Color provides meaning and expression as well as beauty.

6. It must have elements of dynamism and shock.

Posters are best used for motivation and for creative experience as depicting ideas, concepts and generalizations to summarize a celebration or a unit.

3. Drawings and Sketches

These are crude and simple lines, which are effective in showing what needs to be shown with sufficient clarity, to make the meaning vivid to learners or students.

They are drawings with no illusion of depth but a smart teacher can use them in a very effective way in explaining and showing ideas and concepts.


Diagrams are simplified drawings designed to show interrelationship primarily by means of lines and symbols. They are used to explain rather than to represent. It is a drawing that shows arrangement and relationship, as parts to a whole, relative values, origins and developments, chronological flow, fluctuations and distributions.

The diagram is used to condense visual summaries of facts; the ideas rely heavily on symbolic means. However it must be remembered that it is more effective if it has a strong foundation because it works better for summarizing rather then introducing a lesson. It can be used singly but it is better if it is used simultaneously with other materials.

5. Charts

Charts are graphic or pictorial representations of a large mass of information or show progression thru time and space of people or events, ideas and objects.

Kinds of charts and examples

1. Data chart – contains items of information pf all sorts especially quantitative data.

2. Pictorial chart – use relevant pictures to present data or information on quantifiable data over a specific period or condition.
3. Schematic chart – shows a principle or a law as applied like that of refrigeration

4. Diagrammatic chart – verb chart is popular example

5. Multiple leaf chart – internal working parts of a machine

6. Phantom view chart – shows hidden parts of a machine without obliterating the outer parts

7. Development or progress chart – profile of a place or a person

8. Table chart – bus trips

9. Time and tabular chart – presidents and their term of office

10. Stream or tree chart – family tree

11. Flow or organizational chart – school personnel chart, life cycle of a frog or the water cycle.

6. Graphs

Graphs present quantitative data for easier analysis and interpretation. It shows comparative relationship of data involved in size, trends and growth. Graphs are best used in developing and in summarizing a unit.

Kinds of graphs

1. Line graph – is the most accurate of all graphs used in plotting trends of relationships between two series of data. It is used when there is a considerable number of data to be plotted and if these data are continuous

2. Bar graphs – simplest of all graphs to read. They are represented either by vertical or horizontal bars. The lengths of the bars represent an amount or percentage data. It is best when number of values to be compared is small.

3. Circle or pie graph – the sections of which are used to represent component parts of a whole. They always present total amounts, their parts or segments are calculated in percentage or fractional parts of a whole.

4. Area or Solid graphs – use for the simplest quantitative comparison thru the use of geometric shapes. It is used to compare two or three related totals.

5. Pictorial Statistics or pictograph – it makes use of related pictures in showing quantitative data. Pictures give realism and interest so it is widely used specially in the elementary grades.

Principles of Pictographing

1. Simplicity – picture used must be simple
2. Comparison of relationship must be strikingly seen
3. Approximates rather than precise amounts are represented
4. Pictorial symbols used must be self explanatory rather than by the size.

7. Strip Drawing or Comic Strip

Strip drawings are recommended for their story value in adaptation of the classics. They are affective in instruction not only because they are simple, clear and easy to read but because they deal with materials that has been made personal.

Comics is a form of cartooning in which the same cast of characters form a story in sequence of closely related drawings, designed to entertain the readers. They are usually enjoyed by elementary pupils as well as secondary students because of their simplicity, attractiveness, color and relevant plot. The uses of super heroes or fantasy themes add interest to the learners. Thus the use of the comic strip in facilitating instruction must be used to the maximum.

Values derived from the strip drawings

1. Increases interest in the subject
2. Individualizes and personalizes instruction for certain types of pupils
3. Serves as a valuable practice in reading
4. Widens reading interest

Reasons for using comics strip

1. It is easy to read so it encourages reading
2. It builds vocabulary
3. It satisfies the collectors’ interest in acquiring copies
4. It provides excitement
5. It is inexpensive
6. It satisfies the children’s idea of art

8. Maps

Maps are usually shown on flat surface and are used to represent the surface of the earth or some parts of it, showing the relative size and position according to scale or projection and position represented.

Maps according to content

a. Physical map – also called relief maps, they are the best because of their three dimensional representation; which includes geographical outline of land and water. Commercial or economic maps- also known as product or industrial map since they show land area in relation to the economy.

b. Political map – shows national boundaries down to the smallest division

Maps according to form

a. Chalkboard outline map
b. Student outline maps
c. Projected maps
d. Wall maps (decorative maps)
e. Atlas – collection of maps
f. Sand table map
g. Pictorial maps

Standards in judging maps

1. Visibility – details are clearly seen and read
2. Detail – less detailed maps are better
3. Scale – marks are clear, dependable and easily interpreted
4. Symbols – not too many to be remembered
5. Color – should be used as an aid to reading it
6. Accuracy – in terms of its specific purposes
7. Grade level relevance
8. Print – is legible or readable
9. Durability – can stand several use

Purposes for which maps are being used

1. To enable students to understand both relative and exact position of political units, land masses and political area.
2. To furnish information concerning areas, distances, directions, shapes, size and relationships
3. To provide orientation and means of visualizing large and remote areas
4. To clarify materials
5. To provide visual basis or comparison and contrast
6. To provide means of regional synthesis
7. To provide interest and stimulation to learn more about people, geographical influences and places
8. To enable students to trace movements, migration and distribution of people, vegetation, animal life and culture
9. To serve as one method of study for recording purposes
10. To provide an ‘object test’ means for certain types of measurements
11. To furnish means of self-expression in unit and project study.

Points to remember in utilizing maps for teaching

1. Make sure that the pupils or students comprehend the purpose of the map
2. Promote or develop positive emotional attitude
3. Allow ample time for pupils’ first look
4. Make sure they understand map symbolism

Teaching Educational Technology by: Candelaria D. Garo

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Pictorial Media

For information about pictorial media, please read the following information.

1. Flat Pictures (Still Pictures)

Flat pictures are representations of objects or things on a flat surface. They are the cheapest and the most readily available of all learning materials. Many of them are free. Teachers and students can gather pictures from magazines, newspapers, advertisements, pamphlet, posters, circulars and other things. But like all other learning , materials, their values vary and their selection and use should be given careful considerations.

Guides to Teaching with Pictures

1. Pictures must be clearly seen by everyone.

2. Students/pupils must be given a chance to point out what they think are the important aspect of the picture.

3. The teacher must supplement pupils’ comments to make sure that nothing has been omitted.

4. Teacher and pupils should discuss together what they find in the picture.

5. The picture used in class should lead to the accumulation of related pictures in the textbook.

6. If the picture used in class stirs the pupils to attempt at illustrating their own, it is good evidence that a sound use has been made of them.

7. Pictures ought to supply incentives for the use of auxiliary aids, like motion pictures, filmstrips and others.

8. Picture ought to promote supplementary reading.

Reading Pictures

We read pictures in the same way that we read a page of words. We derive the message from the medium by attaching meaning to it.
A picture can be read in four levels as follows:

1. Enumerate level – This level merely calls for the giving of what one sees in the picture e.g. flower, ball, dog, etc.

2. Descriptive level – Giving a sentence on what is seen or how one sees in the picture looks like: e.g. I see a big yellow flower. The ball is red.

3. Interpretative level – Giving more meaningful sentences which are of the inference type. e.g. The yellow flower is the favorite of the girl. Father gives the red ball on the boy’s birthday.

4. Integrative level – This is relating what one sees in the picture to life. Mother bought plastic sunflower from the superstore. It decorates our living room. Or I play ball with my friends on Sundays.

Reading pictures can be most rewarding if the students/pupils are given
guides as to what to see and how to see things in the picture. They must be guided to interpret and to draw inferences about what they see. Pictures must not be merely displayed; they should be read and talked about. That is why it is necessary that the teacher should choose those which are related and relevant to the children’s interest, experiences and maturity. This is to encourage thoughtful seeing and discourse.

2. Photographs

Photographs are also still pictures, which can be mounted or unmounted,
photographic reproductions taken from a magazine, newspaper or books. They appear in black and white or in full color. They can be filed by subjects or displayed in the bulletin board. In the choice of photographs, teachers should choose those that suggest motion or the candid shots, as they are more interesting and life-like. Shotgun pictures do not pose so much challenge and interest; hence discussion about them is limited.

3. Illustration

Illustrations are non-photographic reconstruction or representation of reality, etched or drawn by an illustrator, the teacher or the students/learners themselves. Illustrations show the direction at which movement must take its course or instruction on how to go about assembling a toll in science or a material or equipment. This can be used for specific situations. Illustrations can be in black and white or in full color. They can be prepared ahead of time or the teacher can draw them on the chalkboard while the class is going on. Like the photographs they can be used by individual students/pupil or for a group of learners.

Purposes for which flat picture, photographs and illustrations can be used for teaching

1. To concertize words and symbols.
When teachers talks about a haunted house pupils will not be able to imagine what kind of house is it, how does it looks like, but if a picture is being shown, the learners will have a specific visualization of the kind of haunted house the teacher is talking about. Pupils will then have uniform information about the topics discussed.

2. To lend meaning to what one reads.
In a Science class students read about single-celled organisms like the amoeba or the paramecium. An enlarge picture of both when seen by the pupils will enrich what they read. Like wise if reading about atoms and molecules. Seeing an illustration about them will enrich their understanding of what they are.

3. To introduce or motivate
In a Literature class, where students are required to read the Ilocano epic, Biag ni Lam –ang, pictures of some episodes from the epic may arouse curiosity and interest to read it. The pictorial background can serve to orient the class to the kind of literary piece they are going to read.

4. To correct misconceptions
Pictures and photographs can make meanings more vivid and clearer, because they can capture scenes, emotions and details which words are not able to describe. Concepts are non-pictorial, but they can help in developing and presenting them. Liberty is a concept, which is non-pictorial, but pictures showing the effects and the signs of liberty can help one to better understand it.

5. To summarize a unit
To give a fuller grasp of the unit, pictures, photographs and illustrations should supplement and complement what pupils read in references and what they heard from the lectures of teachers. Pictures should become an integral part of the learning.

6. To arouse emotions.
Pictures arouse emotions; hence they compel one’s attention. A violent picture may stimulate one to dislike the act; a beautiful landscape may evoke appreciation while a colorful dish arranged with garnishing may stimulate appetite. This arousal focuses one’s attention and sustains his drives about it. This condition facilities teaching and learning.

4. Flashcards

Flashcards are valuable materials for drill activities particularly in the teaching of Mathematics, English, and Filipino. Drills are very important means of fixing the skills and automatizing the responses of pupils/students. Flashcards serve the purpose when used very well. Flashcards come in the for of word cards, phrase cards, sentence cards, mathematical combination cards and picture cards.

The following are considerations in using flashcards.

1. The flashcards must be bold and big enough to be seen by everybody.

2. Flash the cards in a fast or snappy manner to develop fast thinking or response. This will enable the pupils to automatize response.

3. Flash the cards from back to front. Write the answer at the back of each flashcard so that as you flash you can see the answer and thus you will be able to check if the response of the pupils is correct or not.

4. Hold the flashcards firmly at your chest level. Take care not to hide the words


Teaching Educational Technology by: Candelaria D. Garo